“the brain is the body”

Kahneman, Daniel. The riddle of experience vs. medicine. Presented at TED2010; February 2010. Accessed December 2018.

Demasio, Antonio. The quest to understand consciousness. Presented at TED2011; March 2011. Accessed December 2018.

Porges, Stephen. The polyvagal theory: How your body makes the decision. Interview at Reden Reicht Nicht!?; May 2016. Accessed December 2018.

Nummenmaa, Laurie. Human emotions systems laboratory. Accessed December 2018.

Jasanoff, A. and Worrall, S. (2018). Why the Brain-Body Connection Is More Important Than We Think. National Geographic. Available at: Accessed 28 Dec. 2018.

Dual Process Theory in Wikipedia. Accessed December 2018.



disclaimer on dual process theory

and simplifying science

Dual process theory is a conceptualization of decision-making that’s been under-development since the late 1800s, and continues to be supported by modern science. Kahneman’s Nobel Prize-winning research on decision-making under uncertainty uses the dual process theory framework.

This explanation of brain-mind through dual process theory makes simplified generalizations, for easier conceptualization and understanding. For sure, a more full and accurate explanation is that … the brain is not simple, and we don’t fully understand.

In developing better understanding of the world and how we live in it, we can usually only strive to be less wrong.

We can’t calculate and obey the math of mind and identity any more than we can “predict the stock market by calculating the movement of quarks”.
Eliezer Yudkowsky, Less Wrong, Researcher at MIRI

“There's a whole further art to finding the truth and accomplishing value from inside a human mind: we have to learn our own flaws, overcome our biases, prevent ourselves from self-deceiving, get ourselves into good emotional shape to confront the truth and do what needs doing, etcetera etcetera and so on.”
Eliezer Yudkowsky

“I wish we had a good experiment to remove the body and prove this point. But it’s pretty difficult to remove somebody’s body and test out how they behave”
Alan Jasanoff, The Biological Mind



“The primal brain is activated and dominant under stress”

Yu R. Stress potentiates decision biases: A stress induced deliberation-to-intuition (SIDI) model. Neurobiol Stress. 2016;3:83-95. Published 2016 Feb 12. doi:10.1016/j.ynstr.2015.12.006

Porcelli AJ, Delgado MR. Stress and Decision Making: Effects on Valuation, Learning, and Risk-taking. Curr Opin Behav Sci. 2017;14:33-39.

Zhang L, Kong M, Li Z, Zhao X, Gao L. Chronic Stress and Moral Decision-Making: An Exploration With the CNI Model. Front Psychol. 2018;9:1702. Published 2018 Sep 11. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01702.



stress and hunger,
“head hunger”

St. Pierre, Brian. “Eating Too Much? You Can Blame Your Brain.” Precision Nutrition, Aug. 2018, Accessed December 2018.

Scott-Dixon, Krista and St. Pierre , Brian. “Good stress, bad stress: Finding your stress sweet spot.” Precision Nutrition, Feb. 2018, Accessed December 2018.

Berardi, John. “Strategies for getting control of stress.” Precision Nutrition, Feb. 2013, Accessed December 2018.

Scott-Dixon, Krista. “Dealing with mysterious hunger.” Precision Nutrition, Jul. 2014, Accessed December 2018.



in nature

Homeostasis in Encyclopedia Britannica. Accessed December 2018.

Ecosystem Dynamics in Complexity Accessed December 2018.



homeostasis in human body systems

Andrews, Ryan. “All about recovery.” Precision Nutrition, Jan. 2015. Accessed December 2018.

Andrews, Ryan. “All about energy balance.” Precision Nutrition, Mar. 2018. Accessed December 2018.

Andrews, Ryan. “All about appetite regulation.” Precision Nutrition, Sep. 2018. Accessed December 2018.



hormones and cell signalling

The Endocrine Society. “What are hormones and what do they do?” Hormone Health Network. Accessed December 2018.

Eveleth, Rose. “There are 37.2 Trillion Cells in Your Body.” Smithsonian, Oct. 2014. Accessed December 2018.